The major global trends driving mobility are autonomy, connectivity and electrification. Every year more countries establish policies, standards and action plans to incentivize market shifts toward electric vehicles. As many as five million electric vehicles were sold in 2018, almost exclusively in U.S., European and Chinese markets. Especially as Africa’s population – the fastest growing on the planet – becomes younger and more urban, smart transportation solutions will be key for addressing the ever-growing challenges of mobility, congestion, safety and productivity. Electrified fleets can also potentially provide critical grid services to increase renewables penetration and act as distributed storage – particularly important for islands, where renewable potential is often higher than the grid can readily absorb. This body of work analyzes potential for vehicle-to-grid services from private, public and commercial fleet conversion in emerging markets.